Chinese farmers should make scientific understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of pesticide
China is one of the countries that have always suffered from serious agricultural pest. In recent ten years, the annual occurrence area of plant disease and insect pests has reached more than 7 billion mu, which has seriously threat grain harvest and agricultural product safety. Experts has reminded that if the plant disease and insect pests cannot be prevented in time, it may lead to 30 percent of grain loss as well as will cause more loss of fruit and vegetables. Currently, pesticide is mainly used in preventing this kind of disease and pest in China, in which about 300,000 tons of pesticide (100 percent basis) will be used every year. By scientifically using these kinds of pesticides, it can control plant disease and insect pests in time, which has made important contributions on ensuring good harvest, controlling pesticide residue pollution as well as ensuring agricultural product quality safety. Therefore, its effect is irreplaceable.
In recent years, two migrant insects in rice fields, ostrinia nubilalis and other pests have kept in high occurrence level as well as the occurrence frequency of wheat scab and armyworm has obviously increased. Besides, athetis lepigone, maize rough dwarf virus and other new plant disease and insect pests have become more and more serious. No matter at present or in the future, pesticide will always be used in preventing plant disease and insect pests.
With the limitation of some high toxic and high-risk pesticides and the continuous adjustment of agriculture industrial structure, pesticides that used in China have become safer and more efficient currently. In 2013, only less than 5 percent of high toxic and highly toxic pesticides were used. On the other hand, the Ministry of Agriculture has launched some experiment units regarding the unified control and green control of 10 kinds of crop pests, which has achieved good effects: 538 demonstration plots have been set up, demonstration area has reached 9.2 million mu and the radiating drive area has reached 71.6 million mu. After observing the pilot conditions in various regions, it can be seen that with the integrated application of green control technology, drug application frequency can be reduced by 1~2 times in each season for field crops, 3-4 times for garden crops as well as the chemical pesticide dosage can be reduced by 20~30 percent.
In the future, China will continuously do a good job of scientific use of pesticide and will improve drug use level of farmers, thus it can prevent pest and ensure high output on one hand as well as can control pesticide residue and guarantee good quality on the other hand.
Pesticide has always been paid much attention to due to agricultural product quality safety problem. In fact, our public has not distinguished the possibility and necessity of pesticide on environment, besides, they often will expand the individual pesticide problem to the common problem. However, we have to understand that toxicity and damage are the two different concepts. Toxicity is the inherent property of pesticide on different life forms, while damage may lead to poisoning problem or other risks when using pesticide. Pesticide is almost similar with medicines that used in cure human disease in nature.
In recent years, the development of pesticide and its environmental compatibility have improved all the time. The dosage of pesticide has reduced from more than 10 kilos and dozens of kilos each acre in the first generation inorganic pesticide to dozens of grams and several grams currently, which shows that it has developed towards high efficiency direction.
The toxicity of pesticide to non-target organism has become lower and lower. From non-preference in the past to high selectivity at present, some pesticide almost has become nontoxic to higher animal, such as some herbicides, fungicides, insect growth regulators, behavior control agent, plant growth regulator and so on. Besides, some new type pesticides also have protective effect on natural enemy. On the other hand, the safety factor of pesticide on plant has been continuously improved. This is because the toxicity of pesticide has been reduced when it is used on plant as well as the purity of pesticide has been improved, thus it can reduce the toxicity of pesticide impurity to plant.
Regarding the biopesticide that has been recommended by the public at present, the environmental safety is difficult to guarantee judging from the origin. Some compounds that have high toxicity or can cause cancer also may derive from nature. For example, rotenone and pyrethrum will have high toxicity to fish, while rat oral toxicity of abamectin insecticide is only 11mg/Kg, which shows that natural pesticides also may not guarantee environmental safety. It can be seen that by developing new type chemical pesticides, it will not have obvious disadvantages judging from the environmental compatibility compared with biopesticide. Besides, biopesticide may not always be safer than chemical synthesis.
Currently, chemical prevention is still the most efficient and most economic method, especially in the sudden disasters. What has been advocated in China is not forbidding pesticide, but trying to reduce pesticide usage amount. Therefore, by choosing appropriate pesticide variety, accurately controlling pesticide dosage and improving drug delivery technology, it can effectively improve the percentage of hits to target-pests, reduce pesticide usage amount, improve environmental suitability of chemical control and ensure safety of agricultural products.
We should take a dialectical view on the effect and damage of pesticide. Currently, it is still unrealistic to completely limit the using of pesticide. In China, the main plant disease and insect pests as well as weeds and rodent disease have reached thousands of kinds, which will cause heavy loss of crops. The contrast test that carried out by plant protection association in Japan shows that disease and pest will cause 53.42 percent of crop output loss. This is because weeds will reduce 21.33 percent of crop output. Under this condition, many people will suffer from starvation without using pesticide.
In view of this, it will become the best choice by developing pesticide that has low toxicity and high safety as well as realizing environmental friendly. For decades, except for forbidding or limiting pesticides that will have harmful effect on human beings and environment as well as some pesticides that have generated serious resistance, people has still tried to develop efficient, low toxic and safe pesticides. Through hard efforts, some efficient pesticides that have high environmental safety have been emerged at right moment, such as strobilurin, SDHIs fungicide, ryanodine receptor insecticide and so on. These kinds of pesticides not only have high efficiency and high safety, but also some of them will use natural substance that has pesticide activity as matrix or can be obtained after biomimetic synthesis by using unique physical substance or structure of pests as targets, which will be very friendly to human beings and livestock.
China is one of the major pesticide production countries, which have made efforts so as to become a powerful manufacture country. As a result, Chinese government has made a lot of specifications based on environmental problems, which requires that the manufacturing enterprises should improve environmental awareness as well as will forbid and limit products and processes that will cause serious pollution and high environmental risk. Besides, most of pesticide manufacturers in China have gradually realized the importance of environment protection. It can be seen that cleaning production, green pesticide, healthy environment and other concepts have become increasingly understood by the public.
In addition, Chinese government also has invested capitals and made many innovation researches on developing new type pesticides, in which “973” planned project, the green chemical pesticide innovation research could be a perfect example. This project is based on ecological and environmental friendly principle and uses molecular target as guiding, which has achieved great results after years of efforts.
The traditional pesticide is positively transforming to high efficiency, green and high safety. We can also firmly believe that pesticide will not be the chief culprit that pollute environment in the future anymore, but will become the powerful weapons that can protect environment, eliminate pests as well as ensure human and environmental health.
Pesticide has played important effect on the agricultural production. However, due to the one-sided understanding and improper use, plus the individual excessive pesticide residues accidents that occurred in some places, people still has bad impression on pesticide.
It is the improper use rather than the pesticide itself that will lead to negative effects. Currently, the misuse and abuse of pesticide still exist, especially that some people still blindly increase pesticide dosage. The excessive dosage will lead to poisoning, pesticide residue and other problems. Pesticide is not terrible, therefore, as long as we can take strict management and risk prevention measures as well as control pesticide residue within the acceptable range, it can serve well for us as well as can draw on advantages and avoid disadvantages.
Pesticides should acquire pesticide registration before being launched in China. Pesticides that applied for registration can only acquire registration as well as being sold and used within defined limit after passing scientific evaluation of Chinese pesticide registration department and proving that they will not do harm to human beings and livestock or will not cause unacceptable risk on environment; pesticides that have been used will be forbidden or restricted if the using risk increases after risk monitoring and revaluation. In recent years, hexachlorocyclohexane, methamidophos, chlorsulfuron and other dozens of pesticides have been forbidden and restricted in China, thus it can largely prevent using risk of pesticide.