Green prevention technology for crop diseases and pests
Crop disease and pests green prevention technology is a set of green prevention system that mainly controls pest source and uses ecological regulation, biological control, physicochemical trapping and controlling technology as well as scientifically uses drug and other organic combination methods, which can cover preplanting period, growth period and post harvest period, including breeding strong seedling, disinfection and prevention before planting, scientific prevention in the growth period and residual body cleaning after harvest. Try to use biological control, physical control, physicochemical trapping and controlling and other methods as many as possible and reduce using chemical pesticide in preventing plant diseases and insect pests. Below are some green prevention technologies for potatoes, corns and wheat.
Green prevention technology for potato diseases and pests
This kind of technology is mainly used in preventing potato late blight, but also can be used in preventing early blight, ring rot, viral disease and so on.
a. Breed strong seedling. Choose several virus-free seed potato varieties that can be resistant to late blight. Afterwards, sow lately in an optimum period, plant in irrational small row spacing, plant different crops alternately in the same field or intercrop with corns, beans and so on. Besides, we should also strengthen fertilizer management and applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizer.
b. Take disinfection prevention measures before planting. The seed potato should be disinfected, in which 58 percent of metalaxyl mancozeb will be used. When cutting the seed potatoes, 75 percent of ethyl alcohol or 0.2 percent of potassium permanganate solution can be used in disinfecting cutters so as to reduce the bacteria content of seed potato and cross infection and prevent disease.
c. Use scientific control in the growth period. Set up 30-40 yellow boards per mu 60cm higher than crops for trapping and killing aphids and reducing virus disease infection; monitor and drain away water in time. Spray 75 percent of mancozeb water dispersible granule twice at the initial stage of rainy season, pull out the center disease plant that has been infected with potato late blight and early blight in time and deeply bury them (more than 1m depth) outside the field, besides, the infected holes should be sprayed with lime. 18.7 percent of enoyl pyrazole ester water dispersible granule or “Yinfali” and other pesticides can be sprayed in the early stage of potato late blight 1-2 times (use them alternately).
d. Use hazard-free treatment after harvest. Cut the seedling and sun the field 7-10 days before harvest; after harvest, clear away the infected potatoes, deeply plough and sun the upturned soil as well as burn the straw in time and deeply bury the infected potatoes; potatoes should be pre-stored in the ventilation place and kept away from the sun 10-15 days for drying and sweating, afterwards, pick out the infected potatoes and store the normal potatoes in the cellar, besides, the cellar that has been used should be disinfected with quick lime before reusing.
Green prevention technology for corn diseases and pests
This technology is mainly used in preventing gall smut, top rot, red spider, second generation armyworm and corn borer, but also can be used in preventing smut, soil insect and cotton bollworm.
a. Breed strong seedling. Apply several diseases and pests resistant species pesticides; plant in irrational small row spacing in about 3500-4500 per mu; strengthen fertilizer management and prevent lodging; properly rotate crops.
b. Take disinfection and prevention measures before planting. In this time, seed coating is needed; or we can evenly mix 250g 50 percent of phoxim emulsifiable concentrate or 48 percent of chlorpyrifos E.C with 30kg fine earth and apply them in the furrow, or mix 4-5 kilograms of phoxim or chlorpyrifos granule with fine sand and apply them in the furrow for preventing soil insects.
c. Scientifically prevent pests in the growth period. Trap and kill corn borer overwintering generation adults in the early emergence period with gyplure as well as use insecticidal lamp in emergence peak; when the egg hatchability of corn borer reaches 30 percent, spray B.t. preparations and release trichogramma in the field. Prevent red spider and corn borer with difenoconazole, tebuconazole, abamectin insecticide, propargite, chlorpyrifos and chlorbenzuron.
d. Use hazard-free treatment after harvest. After corn harvest, deeply plough and sun the upturned soil as well as uproot terrace weeds and clear the fields. Besides, bury the infected plants or residual body in the soil in time, burn the cornstalk and spike stalk before the end of April or smash them for feed processing. Clear away xanthium strumarium and other weed overwintering hosts in time so as to eliminate the overwintering insect source of corn borer.
Green prevention technology for wheat diseases and pests
This technology is mainly used in preventing wheat stripe rust.
a. Breed strong seedling. Rationally layout with different rust-resistant species, sow in the optimum period, plant in irrational small row spacing, irrationally apply fertilizer, strengthen fertilizer management and prevent lodging; properly rotate crops.
b. Take disinfection and prevention measures before planting. Dress seeds with triadimefon, tebuconazole, imidacloprid and phoxim as well as reduce autumn bacteria source and prevent soil insect source.
c. Scientifically prevent pests in the growth period. Spray triadimefon and diniconazole in the early wheat stripe rust period for preventing wheat stripe rust and powdery mildew. Alternately spray abamectin pesticide, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos for preventing wheat aphid, gree wheat mite and wheat midge.
d. Use hazard-free treatment after harvest. After wheat harvest, deeply plough and sun the upturned soil as well as uproot terrace weeds and clear the fields. Besides, bury the infected plants or residual body in the soil in time, uproot volunteer seedling, reduce oversummering bacteria source and reduce autumn seedling disease.