How to correctly use ethephon on the vegetable production
Ethephon, a kind of plant growth regulator that can facilitate maturation, belongs to the ripener and can release ethylene after being absorbed by plants and conducted to the plant body, which has the physiological functions same with the plant endogenous hormone-ethylene. It can promote the fruit mature, dwarf the plant and change the male and female flower proportions. Its common used dosage form in the production is 40 percents of ethephon water aqua which has two kinds of main usage on the vegetables.
a. Ethephon can promote female flower differentiation
Being used on the cucumber
By spraying the liquor in one-leaf stage and one-heart stage of the seedling each one time with the concentrations of 200-300mg/kg, the yield-increasing effect will be very obvious, while spraying with less than 200mg/kg concentrations of liquor, the yield-increasing effect will not be that obvious. When the concentration is higher than 300 mg/kg, it will seriously inhibit the seedling growth and also be bad for improving the quality of seedling. After processing the seedlings, their female flowers quantity will be increased, the internodes will be shortened and the fruiting rate will be improved. According to the statistics, the plants which have the joints within 20 will grow the female flowers almost in every joint. By this time, nutrient and water management should be strengthened to provide enough nutrients for the plants and keep the fruits sitting and growing. Usually when the temperature is more than 15 degrees Celsius, we should water and fertilize regularly, not restrain the growth of the seedlings and increase the fertilizing amount 30 percents-40 percents more compared with the plants that are not sprayed with ethephon. Meanwhile, 0.3 percent of monopotassium phosphate should be sprayed on the leaves surface 3-5 times in the middle and later period so as to ensure the nutrient needs of plant vegetative growth and reproductive growth and prevent the aging of plants.
As cucumber has tall inserted node, by spraying 150mg/kg concentrations of ethephon liquor one time in the stage of 3-4 euphyllas, the lord tendril will grow female flowers and extend to 20-22 nodes, the plant internode will be shortened, the resistance will be enhanced, the early production will be increased by 34 percents-64 percents and become mature 7-10 days early.
Being used on the cucurbita pepo
By spraying the ethephon liquor with the concentrations of 150-200mg/kg in the 3-leaf stage of cucurbita pepo and totally spraying 3 times with the intervals of 10-15 days, its female flowers quantity will be increased, besides, it will become mature 7-10 days early and the early output will be increased by 15 percents-20 percents.
Being used on the pumpkins
The spraying method of pumpkins can refer to the cucurbita pepo. By spraying the ehephon liquid on the leaf surface in the 3-4 leaf stage of pumpkins, the female flower quantity will be increased and the male flowers development will be inhibited, besides, its early output will be increased. However, the treatment effect will vary in different varieties.
b. Ethephon can promote fruit maturation
Being used on the tomatoes
In order to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes, ethephon liquor can be used to apply on the pedicel, soak the fruits and apply on the fruits.
Applying ethephon on the pedicel
300mg/kg of ethephon can be applied on the pedicel in the white ripe stage of tomatoes.
Applying ethephon on the fruits
400mg/kg of ethephon can be applied on the sepal of white ripe fruit and its nearby fruit surface.
Soaking the fruits with ethephon
After the fruits harvest in verasion, soak them in 200mg/kg of ethephon solution one minute and fish them out so as to push red at less than 25 degrees Celsius.
Spraying ethephon on the fruits in the field and promoting maturation
1000mg/kg of ethephon solution is emphasized on spraying on the fruits in one-time harvest in the later period of the plant.
Being used on the watermelons
By spraying 100-300mg/kg of ethephon solution in the maturation stage of watermelons, the melons will become mature 5-7 days early, increase 1 percent-2 percent of soluble solid as well as increase the watermelon sweetness, promote seed maturation and reduce the white seed melon.
c. Ethephon can dwarf the plants
By spraying 300mg/kg of ethephon solution in 3-leaf, 1-heart and 5-euphylla stage of the tomato seedling twice, it can inhibit the seedling vain growth, dwarf the tomatoes, enhance the stress resistance and increase the early output.
d. Ethephon can break dormancy
By soaking the ginger seeds with ethephon before sowing, it can obviously promote the ginger sprout, in which the germination speed will become quicker, the germination rate will be higher and the bud number in every ginger seed will also increase from one bud of each seed tuber to 2-3 buds of each seed tuber. When ethephon is used in soaking seeds, the working concentration should be strictly controlled. 250-500mg/kg is the most appropriate concentration, which can promote sprout as well as increase the branch and the rhizome yield. For example, if the concentration is too high and reaches 750mg/kg, it will obviously inhibit the ginger seedling growth, which reflects in the short and small plant, slim and fragile stalk as well as small blade and rhizome, besides, it will also lead to the reduction of output.