How to use functional plant growth regulator
Being a golf course manager, the most troubling thing is with the increasing cost of the lawn maintenance budget year by year, the turf quality is still not improved. This condition is mainly caused by the increasing fuel cost, the machine maintenance, the use of water and the labor costs; moreover, most of the lawn maintainers’ time is spent in mowing, watering, cleaning up the grass clippings, fertilization and preventing pests. Therefore, each golf course tries using some new technology so as to save energy consumption and reduce maintenance cost. The functional plant growth regulator will be a good choice for them.
The conception of functional plant growth regulator
The functional plant growth regulator is a kind of modifier developed and produced for the plant to achieve a certain purpose, such as the dwarf agent dedicated to dwarf the lawn, the special rooting agent which promote the lawn grass roots and the coloring agent which increases the lawn color and improve the ornamental value.
The effect of functional plant growth regulator
The functional plant growth regulator can be divided into two categories according to its effect and nature which include growth promoter and growth retardant. Growth retardant is divided into two types of type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ. Type Ⅰ can prevent the fission and differentiation of the meristematic zone cells and inhibit the growth of the turfgrass by interrupting the biosynthesis of amino acids and fatty acids, which is mostly used in the lawn with low maintenance level or not easily to be clipped, such as the chlorflurenol and maleic hydrazide. Type Ⅱ can prevent the elongation and expansion of meristematic zone cells. It also can suppress the grass growth by inhibiting the synthesis of gibberellins and will not have negative effects, which can be used in the high maintenance level lawn. For example, mefluidide is mainly used for inhibiting the cells growth while paclobutrazol and uniconazole are used for destroying the synthesis of gibberellins in the plant body and suspending the cells growth.
The application of functional plant growth regulator
Dwarfing the lawn, decreasing the mowing frequency and reducing the maintenance cost
In the maintenance budget of golf course, the cost caused by grass cutting occupies a large portion. Sometimes it will be too busy to cut the grass. If we can use the modifier having the dwarf function, for example, the lawn dwarf agent can suspend the turfgrass growth and reduce the mowing frequency. Thus it can decrease the wound caused by mowing and reduce the disease frequency and the application rate of fertilizer, the abrasion and consumption of mowing machines will also be reduced. Besides, it can also prevent the formation of withered grass layer and increase the appearance and texture of the lawn.
The growth regulators having the above mentioned functions mainly include PRIMO, PROXY, S3307, mefluidide and blending products which have about up to 40 days dwarf duration for the cool-season turfgrass and can reduce 7 to 8 times of mowing with only one time of drug delivery. They have two application methods which are foliage spray and broadcast. If we use the foliage spray method, we should use the drugs 2-3 days before or after the grass cutting without respraying and leak spraying; if we use soil broadcast method, we should water immediately after spraying so as to make the particles fall into the root of the grass and use its stable and long-term slow-release effect to permanently control the plant height.
Accelerating the rooting rate of turfgrass, strengthening the resistance and reducing the plant disease and insect pests frequency
Rearing root is important in rearing the grass as the better growth of the root, the better absorption and growth of the grass will have. Due to the intensive trim of greens and long-term kept in extremely low growth state, the turfgrass root system is underdeveloped, the root is shallow, the root activity is poor, its damage resistance is reducing and easily be influenced by plant disease, insect pests and the bad environment, therefore, we can often see that the whole greens are destroyed by the disease. The lawn having good growth root system will have strong ability in absorbing water and nutrient, greatly increase the comprehensive resistance and grow well.
The plant growth regulator products having the above mentioned functions mainly include 6-BA, KT (kinetin plant hormone), TA, NAA, etc. Their functional characteristics are activating the root activity, increasing the activity of root enzyme and accelerating the root growth rate of the lawn; large amounts of roots will be came out after 7-12 days of using time, which is one month ahead of the biological type rooting agent, besides, the grass will grow up with deep, rough, much and pure root; its longest root is 6.3 cm longer than by using the biological type rooting agent, which obviously improve the drought resistant performance of the lawn; lots of new root are came out and have obviously root promoting effect; fast lawn growth recovery: the lawn growth will be recovered rapidly and keep its nature and beauty after 10 days using of lawn special rooting agent on the degradation and aging lawn, the lawn frozen by low temperature, the lawn damaged heavily by plant disease and insect pests, the lawn used with overfrequency and the lawn having ball spots. Meanwhile, it can enhance the leaf photosynthesis, increase the dry matter accumulation in the lawn grass body and improve its resistance ability to the bad environment. This kind of resistant effect is obvious on mature plants and not obvious in the seedling stage. Its main application method is foliage spray: using 1200 to 1500 times of liquid concentration in the cold season type grass and 800 to 1000 times of liquid concentration on warm type grass; regarding to the lawn having long planting time and aging, the dosage should be increased.
Increasing the drought tolerance of the lawn, improving the drought resistance ability and reducing the harm to the lawn
The three principles of golf course drought resistance are as follows: firstly, using the plant growth regulators which can promote the lawn rooting to improve the horizontal and vertical exhibit capacity of root and expand the soil absorption area of root system; secondly, using the growth regulators which can dwarf the lawn and weaken the turfgrass growth to weaken the lawn growth, decrease its requirement to water and improve the drought resistant of the plant; thirdly, using the growth regulators which can be resistant to leaf water transpiration, for example, ABA can weaken the metabolism of the turfgrass, reduce the water lost and obviously enhance the drought resistance. When using the foliage spray, its working concentration should be in 0.5PPM to 1.0PPM and continuously spray it 2-3 times with the interval of 5-7 days, thus the effect will be obvious.
Increasing the turf color, enhancing the ornamental value and improving the utilization of the golf course
Due to the frequent trim of the turfgrass, the nutrient distribution regularity of the plant body is disorganized. It is reflected in the aberration, yellowing, withered white and light green on its leaf surface or the growth shrivel, uneven height and inconsistent color shades of its plant. The growth regulator having green increasing function is necessary for increasing the turf color. Especially for the golf course with big passenger volume and high utilization rate, the green increasing effect of growth regulator will be better than any other kinds of fertilizer and even some functions cannot be replaced by the fertilizer. The growth regulator having this kind of function mainly includes TA, Acetic acid diethylaminoethanol ester (DA-6), sodium nitrophenolate and so on.
Improving the lawn frost resistance
The plant cold resistant is related with the sugar content and soluble protein content in its body, while the growth regulator can improve the cold resistant of cool-season turfgrass in a certain extent. The related growth regulator includes ABA, chitin, trinexapac-ethyl and so on which can induce the antifreeze factor, activate enzymes and increase the stability of cytomembrane; inhibit and destroy the Ice nucleation activity of frozen protein and increase the quantity of heat; or improve its cold resistance by promoting the accumulation of energy.
Breaking the grass seed dormancy and accelerating its germination
The growth regulator which can break the grass seed dormancy mainly includes triacontanol (TA), gibberellins (GA), KT, ethephon and so on. Its functional characteristics are breaking the grass seeds dormancy, shortening the dormancy period, accelerating the germination of grass seeds and improving the germination rate. The germination rate of zoysia japonica seeds will be improved obviously after being treated with GA. By cooperatively using GA with cytokinin, it can relieve the seed dormancy and obviously improving the germination. Meanwhile, the exogenous ethylene and ethephon (with low concentration) will have obvious effect in relieving the seed dormancy. When using ethephon, adding a certain concentration of CO2 will obviously improve the effects of breaking the seeds dormancy.
The distinction between commonly used modifier and functional regulator products
The growth regulators which are commonly used by us are generally introduced with their effect mainly focus on the crops and have little certain and scientific index about its usage on lawn. For example, the chlormequat chloride (CCC), its effect on controlling the plant vegetative growth, promoting plant reproductive growth, shortening and sutmpishing its internode, making it resistant to lodging, deepening the leaf color and enhancing the photosynthesis are all know by us. According to its description of the function, most people think that it can be used as the good dwarf agent product on the lawn. However, people study little about how it is used, what kinds of varieties it can work on, what the effect is after using and whether it has influences or not, etc. Besides, most people know the modifiers from the farming books and they know little about the advantage of blending products. With the appearance of functional regulator products, the modifiers began to be used a lot on the lawn.
The effect of functional regulator products is exclusive and is difficult to research which requires its specific details of function to any variety of any plant. For example, spraying with 600PPM to 800PPM of PRIMO on the tall fescue lawn of more than two years old after three days of its trim, the dwarf effect will be obvious after 7 days and its duration time will be 40 days. Functional regulator products are mostly developed with blending preparations and also has scientific ratio, which can expand the function and avoid the using defect of single preparation. Thus each of its function will work cooperatively and have strong application effect. For example, the lawn special rooting agent can both stimulate the rooting frequency and increase the dry matter accumulation in the body so as to improve the plant resistance and avoid rooting without improving the plant quality after using the single product.