The Agricultural Application of Abamectin
Abamectin is a new crop-livestock amphibious antibiotic and an excellent antibiotic insecticide, miticide，with high biological activity to a variety of crops and pest mites, It has a broad-spectrum, high efficiency, low residual and safe for humans, animals and the environment and so on. Because of its unique mechanism of action, which can effectively control pests and mites that have resistance to conventional insecticide and acaricide, is one of the current ideal and comprehensive pesticides. In addition to agricultural pest control, also widely used in the treatment of a variety of internal and external parasites of poultry disease, abamectin is an efficient broad-spectrum and safe poultry insect repellent, anthelmintic to nematodes, insects and mites. Abamectin insecticides currently used for the production of multi-strain are natural strains screened from nature, though after some mutagenesis alienation, the level of gene product expression is restricted by bacterial systems and self-regulation of toxin gene copy number, still having constraints such as slow efficacy, relatively narrow insecticide spectrum and poor stability.
Ivermectin and emamectin benzoate are the upgraded products of avermectin. Ivermectin has lower toxicity, mainly used in animals (its structure is more stable, and it’s also the world’s largest-selling avermectin series). Emamectin benzoate activity is much higher (stomach toxicity is 2146 times as avermectin), and it has for exhibit an extremely high activity to lepidopteran pests (avermectin has a poor effect on prodenia litura while emamectin benzoate has a special effect on spodoptera), which is the difference between them. To sum up: avermectin is an almost can be used for all crops to provide an ideal effect on almost all pests ideal while emamectin benzoate is a similar agent with a significantly higher activity.
Abamectin has the highest virulence of all drugs tested in the virulence test in laboratory, but abamectin control effect is not ideal when it is used in the field. Some experts think that it decomposes easily, especially the decomposition when exposed to light which leads to poor field effect, but without final agreement interpretation. Because of the poor field effect, now this product is rarely seen on the market.
The current status of their applications is reflected in three aspects: First, the product is still the focus drug for integrated rice pests control, mainly applied to rice leaf roller, because of good activity to chilo suppressalis and tryporyza incertulas, making it get largely applied in a large practical borers prevention; meanwhile, it also has a good control effect when the dose is increased to 100 ml per acre or more. Therefore, the industry called it biological methamidophos. Second, the application of prevention and treatment has met challenges, that the initial avermectin’s application of prevention and treatment is shrinking, such as citrus rust mites, pear psylla, diamondback moth, red spiders on other various crops, primarily is due to the unreasonable application of technology, the lagging formulation development, the increased drug resistance and the continuous development of alternatives and so on. Third, new application fields are being developed, such as root-knot nematode, pine wood nematode, but there is a big lag on various aspects of formulation, application techniques, theoretical guidance, even violation of the basic concept of prevention and treatment on vegetables and fruit trees root knot nematodes disease.